Yes, there is a very good chance that you would go to jail if there is a warrant for your arrest that is still active. If a police officer was to pull you over, or question you, or in some way come into contact with you, and he/she ran your information through the station, they would be made aware of the warrant. And in all likelihood, the officer will arrest you on the spot.
When you are pulled over for speeding in excess of the posted limits, you most frequently will receive a citation for speeding. The small, rectangular document provides you with all the pertinent information you need to know about the infraction, court dates, and the amount of the fine. One option available to you is to simply sign the back of the ticket and pay the associated fine. But if you fail to do so (because you forget, or you shove in the back of your glove compartment, or you think it is was given to you erroneously and you just do not want to deal with it), and the court date for the ticket comes and goes without you making an appearance, then the judge will issue a bench warrant for your arrest.
At this point, it becomes a game of risk. Because every time you operate a motor vehicle thereafter, you are risking a subsequent stop by the police (at which time you will likely be arrested). But there is a way to prevent that from happening. An experienced attorney can get the warrant lifted (by entering as your lawyer on the case, and convincing the judge to release his or her warrant for your arrest), and then negotiate with the prosecutor to get the underlying ticket amended (or reduced) to a non-moving violation. By getting the ticket reduced, no points will be assessed against your driving record. The more points you receive, the worse things become. This is because your automobile insurance can rise dramatically as a result, and with of lot of points over a short period of time, you could possibly lose your license to drive. Avoiding this outcome should be the highest priority for you, because this can have a tremendous impact on your ability to get to work, to school, or the grocery store.